If you are worried about vaccination problems, you should check this first.
1. Why have there been many incidents caused by vaccination in recent years?
Vaccine events have increased, directly because of the number of vaccinations and the number of vaccination doses. Although the probability of vaccination is very low, because the number of vaccinations in China is very large, the absolute number of small probability events will definitely increase, and the public, including the media, should have a correct understanding of this.
Take the coupling syndrome as an example. Coupling is not an abnormal response to vaccination, but it is most likely to occur and is most likely to cause misunderstandings. Coupling refers to the incubation period of the subject being in a certain disease, or the existence of a basic disease that has not yet been discovered, and coincidence (relapse or aggravation) after vaccination. The occurrence of the coupling is not related to the vaccine itself. The higher the vaccination rate and the more varieties, the greater the coupling rate that occurs.
2. Since vaccination is risky, why should the country still have to work so hard to advance the planned immunization work?
The risk of adverse reactions after vaccination is much less than the risk of transmission of infectious diseases without vaccination. Before the implementation of immunization, the incidence of infectious diseases in China is very high. Since the implementation of the immunization program, vaccination has reduced the incidence of measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, tetanus and other diseases by more than 300 million people, reducing deaths by 4 million.
Use a set of numbers to illustrate this situation:
In the early 1960s, about 20,000 to 43,000 cases of polio were reported every year in the country. After the implementation of planned immunization, the incidence rate decreased year by year. Since October 1994, no cases of native poliovirus have been found.
From 1950 to 1965, the average annual incidence of measles in China was 590.6/100,000, of which a measles epidemic nationwide occurred in 1959, with an incidence rate of 1432.4/100,000, and 3 out of every 100 measles patients died. Since the widespread use of vaccines in 1965, the epidemic intensity of measles has been greatly weakened, especially for measles immunization. In 2009, the reported incidence dropped to a historical low of 3.9/100,000.
In 1992, the hepatitis B serological survey showed that the hepatitis B surface antigen carrying rate in China was 9.75%. In 1992, China's hepatitis B vaccine was included in the children's plan for immunization management. In 2002, hepatitis B vaccine was included in the child immunization program. In 2006, hepatitis B serology was used to investigate the hepatitis B surface antigen carrying rate in China. At 7.18%, it is estimated that the number of children infected with hepatitis B virus has decreased by nearly 80 million since 1992, and the number of children with hepatitis B surface antigen has decreased by 19 million.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, tens of thousands of cases of diphtheria were reported in China every year. Since the implementation of planned immunization in 1978, the incidence of diphtheria has dropped drastically. At present, many provinces in China have not reported cases of diphtheria for many years. In recent years, there is no diphtheria in the country. Case Reports.
Before the vaccine was used, whooping cough was a common cause of illness and death in children. The incidence of pertussis in China in the 1950s and 1970s was above 100/100,000. In the 1939 and 1963 pandemics, nearly 10,000 children died. Whooping cough, and now, the incidence of whooping cough has dropped below 1/100,000.
3. What problems should parents pay attention to before vaccination? How to strengthen communication with vaccinated personnel?
The role of parents cannot be ignored. Parents should take their children to a qualified vaccination clinic identified by the government department for vaccination. Before vaccination, the vaccinator should be provided with the health status of the recipient so that the staff can judge whether they can be vaccinated. If you find suspicious circumstances after vaccination, you should consult the vaccination staff immediately and seek medical advice if necessary, so that they can be handled promptly and correctly. Before vaccination, parents should pay special attention to whether children and children have acute diseases, allergies, immune dysfunction, nervous system diseases, etc., and vaccinate under the guidance of vaccinators. For example, before the newborn is vaccinated, the parents need to cooperate with the vaccination personnel to make a diagnosis and general health check on the newborn's health status, and provide the newborn's health status, including whether the child is born at full birth, birth weight, and newborn. The birth score, whether there are congenital birth defects, whether there is a disease, etc., so that the vaccinator can correctly grasp the contraindications of vaccination and decide whether to vaccinate.
4. How can disease control and vaccination units strengthen vaccine management and standardize vaccination services?
Strong vaccine management and standardized vaccination services are very important. Disease control institutions and inoculation units shall purchase, store and transport vaccines in strict accordance with relevant regulations. The vaccination personnel should strictly implement the vaccination services according to the regulations, including notification before vaccination, strict implementation of immunization procedures or vaccination programs, observation after vaccination, timely handling of suspicious reactions after vaccination and reporting.
5. Under what circumstances are children not suitable for vaccination?
Acute illness: If the parent finds that the child is having a fever, especially if the fever is above 37.6 °C, or if the child is accompanied by other obvious symptoms, the vaccination should be suspended. The child recovers and is vaccinated after a period of nursed back to health. In addition, if the child is in the onset or recovery phase of an acute disease, or in an acute phase of a chronic disease, the vaccine should be delayed and vaccinated after the child recovers.
Allergic constitution: Individual children have allergies and are easily ignored by parents. Children with allergies may even cause allergic reactions after vaccination, resulting in adverse reactions. The so-called allergic constitution refers to the repeated exposure of a child to a certain substance, which is prone to allergic reactions in the body and the corresponding symptoms. Among them, allergic rash is the most common. If you have found an allergic reaction to a vaccine in the past, you should stop the vaccination.
Immune insufficiency: It is generally believed that children's immune function is incomplete, not only the effect after vaccination is worse than that of healthy people, but also easy to cause adverse reactions, especially when injecting live vaccine. More serious immune dysfunction includes immunodeficiency (such as no/low gammaglobulinemia), leukemia, lymphoma, malignancy, and the like. If children are prone to repeated bacterial or viral infections, they are often accompanied by symptoms such as fever, rash and swollen lymph nodes. The possibility of immune dysfunction should be suspected. Special care should be taken when vaccinating.
Nervous system disorders: People with neurological disorders are at risk of inoculation of certain vaccines, so children with neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, encephalopathy, snoring, encephalitis sequelae, convulsions or convulsions, are identified. Vaccination should be carried out with caution under the guidance of a doctor.
6. Vaccination may pose a health hazard, so what measures does the state have for this?
According to the Regulations on the Administration of Vaccine Circulation and Vaccination, which came into effect on June 1, 2005, one-time compensation shall be given for the death of a breeder, severe disability or organ tissue damage caused by abnormal vaccination. The specific compensation method is formulated by the provincial government. Among them, the anomalous response to the vaccination of the first type of vaccine, the compensation costs are arranged by the provincial financial department in the vaccination work. The compensation for the abnormal response caused by the second type of vaccine is borne by the relevant vaccine manufacturer.
At present, some provinces in China have formulated clear compensation methods or regulations. The basic principle is to set the compensation limit according to factors such as the injury status of the recipient and the average per capita consumption expenditure in the previous year. In order to do a good job in the after-treatment of cases of abnormal vaccination, the Ministry of Health has also issued relevant policies with relevant departments. For example, in 2008, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education formulated guidelines for the treatment of polio vaccine-related cases. It is required to help eligible patients and their families to enjoy basic living assistance, parental reproduction, medical assistance and disability care as required.
Experts believe that in the face of the increase in vaccination doses will inevitably lead to an increase in abnormal reactions, provincial governments should introduce corresponding compensation measures as soon as possible, and put them into the legalization track. In addition, actively explore other forms of relief for vaccination anomalous response compensation, such as the establishment of an abnormal response compensation fund. The source of the fund is collected by the vaccine manufacturer according to the number of vaccine sales in the previous year and the probability of abnormal vaccine response. The relevant government departments collect the fees, and the collection fees are included in the cost of vaccine production. The society or individuals can also make voluntary contributions. Let those unfortunate families get the compensation they deserve.
7. What is the probability of occurrence of coupling in the vaccination process?
Take the case of child coupling as an example. According to the results of China's health service demand survey, the prevalence rate of children aged 0-4 years is 17.4%. Therefore, even if the vaccination is safe after vaccination, every 100 vaccinated children will still be in the next two weeks. About 17 children have other diseases, although the disease is not related to vaccination, but because of the close relationship with vaccination, it is very easy to be misunderstood as a vaccination abnormal reaction. Take the neonatal hepatitis B vaccine coupling death as an example. The mortality rate of newborns (0-28 days) in China is 10.7‰, and the number of children born in the country is about 16 million per year. According to this calculation, about 170,000 newborns die every year in the country, that is, about 466 newborns die every day. According to China's hepatitis B vaccine immunization program, hepatitis B vaccine is vaccinated within 24 hours after birth. The national first-in-one hepatitis B vaccine is administered at a rate of 75% (within 24 hours after birth), and about 350 newborns die every day. Hepatitis B vaccine was inoculated, that is, there may be 350 accidental deaths from newborn hepatitis B vaccine every day in the country.
(Jilin Qijian Biotechnology Co., Ltd. www.qjbio.com.cn)